The theory and application of the hottest packagin

2022-08-05
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Packaging and packaging engineering theory and its application

preface

use (work) reliability engineering and maintainability engineering are two closely related disciplines, just like a pair of twin sisters, which have been born and grown for a long time. Similarly, storage (not working) reliability engineering and packaging engineering should also be two closely related disciplines, but packaging engineering among the twin sisters has not yet been born as a discipline. In this paper, packaging engineering is regarded as a discipline. In july2014, OPM again obtained the approval of FDA to produce facial implants for specific patients, construct the concept of packaging, construct the theoretical system framework of packaging engineering, and give birth to it. Make the existing reliability (R), Maintainability (m) and supportability (s), that is, add a new member in the R · m · s family - packaging (P), and become R · m · P · s. As a result, first of all, the complex system engineering of development, use and guarantee of modern products has become a more systematic and scientific system engineering of development, packaging, use and guarantee. The theory and application of packaging engineering, the specific characteristics of the product or system involved, as well as the physical, chemical and structural characteristics, are all related to how to achieve rapid packaging with the least resources. Therefore, packaging engineering can reduce the consumption of packaging materials, simplify packaging containers, reduce the input of auxiliary materials, and reduce the packaging man hours and manpower; More importantly, from the perspective of environmental issues, it reduces the consumption of natural resources, facilitates the management and reuse of garbage and waste, and more clearly and effectively supports the "3R" (reduce, reuse, recycle) principle

1. overview of packaging engineering theory

the packaging engineering theory and its application proposed now is a new concept, which is different from the traditional packaging engineering theory and its application. Packaging is not only the result of in-depth research on packaging engineering, but also the result of comprehensive research on reliability, maintainability, supportability, man machine environment engineering, efficiency and cost

1.1 packaging concept

in product system design, various requirements must be considered, such as reliability, maintainability, supportability, safety, producibility and human machine environment factors. However, in product system engineering and traditional packaging engineering theory, the concept of packaging is not put forward, and the status and role of packaging is not reflected in product system design

packaging is one of the important parameters in product system design. Like its design parameters, it must be paid attention to and carefully considered as a part of product system engineering. The performance of product packaging is often no less important than the influence of reliability, maintainability, supportability and other factors to protect or maintain the good use condition of the product, even whether the product can be used. But up to now, product designers often ignore these, and pay more attention to the performance design of product systems, and at most to the design of reliability and maintainability

since reliability, maintainability, supportability and man machine environment engineering have emerged as an engineering discipline related to product design and development in, it is entirely reasonable to consider packaging as a product design feature, because it is closely related to reliability, maintainability, guarantee and safety, And it has its own operability (producibility, accessibility, testability, controllability, security, etc.). Therefore, packaging engineering is a discipline closely related to product system design. It should become a part of product system design to ensure that products can be economically and effectively packaged under the specified conditions during storage and transportation

1.1.1 definition of packagability

packagability refers to the design and manufacturing characteristics of products or equipment systems, which enable them to better accept packaging and achieve the purpose of effective preservation and protection during storage and transportation. It only requires less packaging man hours, tools, facilities, lower packaging skill level, less packaging repetition times and lower packaging and logistics costs. The original definition of packaging is still used. Packaging is the general name of the materials, containers and auxiliary materials used by certain technical methods in the circulation process to protect products, facilitate storage and promote sales. It also refers to the operation process of adding certain technical methods to the process of using materials, containers and auxiliary materials to achieve the above purpose

1.1.2 packaging purpose

packaging engineering involves the standby state of the product or equipment system, also known as the use state, which refers to the ability of the product or equipment system to be used once needed. Standby status includes the requirements of many factors, the most important of which is its internal reliability. Packaging is to protect and maintain the reliability of products or equipment systems in storage and transportation, and meet the requirements for the reliability of products or equipment systems in storage and use

it is possible to make the product reliability reach the level of almost no failure, so as to maintain a good standby state, even in the storage and transportation time. However, under the condition of modern science and technology, the various components or parts required by such products may be expensive, or even make the products very uneconomical, or the cost-effectiveness ratio of the products is very poor, although it can simplify the packaging and reduce the packaging cost; The cost of components and parts shall be appropriately reduced to make the product more economical. By appropriately increasing the packaging cost, the total cost-effectiveness of the product shall be better. In order to achieve an appropriate balance of sample attainment, packaging, like reliability, maintainability and supportability, must start from the demonstration, design and development stage of the product life cycle, weigh the requirements of the product and consider the problem of packaging. The consideration of packaging and packaging must be an integral part of the original product planning. A comprehensive logistics support scheme containing packaging and packaging issues must be developed at early stages and approved before researchers enter subsequent stages. Products that do not carefully consider packaging and packaging at the initial stage often fail to achieve maximum system efficiency and standby status. Therefore, it is necessary to strike a proper balance between the packaging and the logistics support resources required by the packaging work and the product development progress, performance and life cycle cost

1.1.3 packaging engineering and packaging engineering

packaging and packaging have different meanings. Packaging is a measure that the designer should take in the design to improve the effective packaging and packaging convenience in the process of product development. The purpose is to ensure that in the production, installation, storage, transportation and use, the producer or user can pack well with the minimum life cycle guarantee cost and the shortest time. Packaging is the action taken by producers or users to preserve and protect the usable state of products and facilitate storage and transportation, According to the definitions in the national standard gb4122 general terms for packaging: "Packaging is the general name of the container adopted according to certain technical methods, the roller shaft and roller shaft seat of the fixture of the utility model adopt clearance matching materials and auxiliary materials to protect products and facilitate storage. It is also an operation activity to apply certain technical methods in the process of adopting containers, materials and auxiliary materials to achieve the above purpose."

in the life cycle, it is the responsibility of packaging engineering to ensure the needs of producers or users in all aspects, because they affect all aspects of design; Design is the responsibility of packaging engineering. Since the definition of packaging is "an internal performance of design that is convenient for packaging", packaging engineering should participate in product design and need to integrate packaging characteristics into product design. Packaging design requirements are the results of packaging engineering analysis, which reflect the needs of producers or users. The task of the packaging engineer is to know whether the packaging characteristics necessary to meet these requirements have been included in the product design contract. The packaging engineering must be combined with the engineering of other departments of product quality to ensure the necessary efficiency of the product and consider the packaging cost and total cost of the product in the whole life cycle. Since the definition of packaging is as mentioned above, of course, the definition of packaging engineering can also be given: "packaging engineering is a technical activity field in product packaging, a concept obtained from product protection and convenient storage and transportation, and various design ideas, guidelines and technical requirements related to it are retained and developed to ensure timely, appropriate and economic packaging of products." The packaging engineer is concerned about how to use and package the product after it leaves the factory and reaches the user. He should represent the needs of the user. It must involve the analysis of the product task and its use and support, the environmental conditions of product use, packaging and storage, packaging identification, packaging and other support resources, as well as packaging measures. Know whether the packaging needs of users are reflected in the product design and development requirements

1.2 quantification of packaging

1.2. measurement of packaging

quantification of packaging is an important work of packaging engineering and the basis for the operability of packaging engineering. In this sense, packaging can also be defined as "a feature of design and production represented by Dingchang; it is an efficiency function that the product will be maintained or protected in its specified standby state within the given storage and transportation time and conditions when packaging is implemented according to the predetermined resources and methods". The parameter variables are: packaging grade, packer

, packaging cost and number of repeated packaging; The independent variable is: protection or storage time; The efficiency function is the degree of protection

see the following equation:

p (T) =po· α· T/t

where: α: Packing grade × Packing man hour × Packaging cost × Repacking times

t: effective storage period of the product

t: maximum (Design) storage period of the product

p: degree of product standby status

po: degree of product design standby state (maximum value)

1.2.2 analysis of factors constituting packaging

in order to achieve the expected effective packaging design, all parameters in the system model must be able to be processed qualitatively and quantitatively. Therefore, the determination of packaging system design optimization is to integrate the corresponding parameters to achieve the purpose of cost-effectiveness tradeoff. In addition to dealing with each parameter separately in its own discipline, it is necessary to integrate these parameters into the optimal system, which is the computational method of system engineering. In addition to being a parameter of system design, packaging can also be used as a general index, which can be decomposed into many sub indexes. They are packaging grade, packaging man hour, packaging cost, packaging repetition times and packaging effectiveness. Different products or the same product shall have different packaging levels due to different standby tasks. Different packaging levels refer to different packaging resources and corresponding packaging support; The higher the packaging level is, the more packaging resources will be used and the higher the packaging effectiveness will be. Packaging man hour refers to the man hour required for one packaging, which is the use degree of human resources. Generally speaking, the packaging is simple and the working hours are less; Complicated packaging and many working hours. Packaging cost usually refers to the cost of one-time packaging, which is a parameter with statistical mean meaning.

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